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Tekst 1

Norwich is a city in the east of England. It has existed as a place to live for more than two thousand years. It began as a small village beside the River Wensum. After 1066, when the Normans started to rule England, it changed into an important town. With two cathedrals, Norwich has also become a religious centre. Its first cathedral was built in 1095 and not so long ago it celebrated its 900th anniversary. The other cathedral was built at the beginning of the 20th century.

Today, Norwich is quite small with a population of around 150,000. However, in the past Norwich was developing very fast. In the 16th century it became so large that only London, the capital of England, was bigger and had more inhabitants. Norwich continued to grow for the next 300 years and it got very rich and famous. In 1964 the University of East Anglia was opened in Norwich. So the city is also a popular university centre with fast growing student population. The city has a lot of places of entertainment such as theatres, cinemas, pubs and nightclubs.

Norwich’s attraction is also the place called The Castle Mall, situated in the heart of the city. It was very difficult to build this modern shopping centre. It is located underground so builders had to move about a million tons of earth to build it. The roof of the Mall became a small park with some fountains and trees. People from Norwich also like visiting the historical market square which is next to The Castle Mall. It is a perfect place to have a rest as motor traffic is forbidden there. Norwich is the city which mixes the best of the old and the new very well.
1. During the Norman rule, Norwich …
2. In the 16th century, Norwich …
3. The Castle Mall is situated …
Tekst 2

Our Toy Museum is located in the Old Town market square. It contains numerous collections of toys: dolls, dolls’ houses, train models, board games and mechanical toys. European countries, like France and Germany, made toys in the 18th and 19th century. Especially the second half of the 19th century was good for toy production. But the toys which are the most interesting in our museum were made in the 1920s and 1930s. The collection can be seen in the room on the first floor. It is really fascinating.

Recently, our museum has also organized an interactive exhibition of toy soldiers. Come to visit it quickly as it is a short event. The exhibition is only open for two months and it will close on the 30th of September.

We invite you to our Toy Museum every day (except December 25 and January 1). We recommend making reservations early, especially in summer time. Visitors can see our collections individually or with a professional guide. The opening hours are from 9 a.m. to 5.30 p.m.
4. The museum’s most interesting toys come from …
5. Visitors …
Tekst 3

Agatha Christie was probably the most successful writer in history. She wrote 78 crime novels, 150 short stories, 4 non-fiction books and 19 plays. That represents two billion books sold.

Christie became a writer by accident. During the First World War she was working in a hospital, where she had a boring, badly paid job. Her husband was fighting in the war so Agatha lived alone. She had no duties and plenty of time for herself. One day she thought that she could write a novel just to pass the time. She was not interested in crime but she chose a detective story. She knew that people loved reading them. Her first novel appeared to be a success. In The Mysterious Affairs at Styles Christie described an intriguing mystery and gave readers some clues to solve it. People loved the book immediately and hundreds of thousands of copies were sold. Also, critics praised it in newspapers and wrote many positive reviews.

That novel made Agatha Christie a rich woman. She gave up her job and started travelling all over the world. Later she used the travels in her writing. Agatha Christie died in 1976, but her stories are still very popular.
6. Agatha Christie decided to write her first book because she …
7. The Mysterious Affairs at Styles …
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Many inventors have become millionaires, but have you heard of Tim Berners-Lee? He invented the World Wide Web on the Internet, one of the most important inventions of the last fifty years. When Tim Berners-Lee invented the Web, he promised himself that he wouldn’t make any money out of it, and that he would simply give his invention to the world. He did, and now the Web belongs to all of us. We should be grateful to Tim Berners-Lee, and thank him for his amazing gift to the world.
Leyton looked at the expanse of the Atlantic Ocean in front of him. He had finally come to the end of his journey. Several months ago he did not know whether it would be possible. After his serious illness he decided to make the journey, just to prove it was possible. Then, after weeks of planning and worrying, he started from the northernmost point of the country and walked on his own to the southernmost point. And here he was, at the end of his journey; he had achieved his aim. And he realised that it was the most exciting thing he had ever done and probably would ever do in his life.
The Isabella Gardner Museum was built by the millionaire Isabella Stewart Gardner in the 19th century. In those days rich Americans often travelled to Europe. Isabella went to Europe many times and bought many fine paintings and sculptures. She wanted to show them to Americans and she decided to build a museum in Boston. She succeeded and in 1903, the museum opened to the public. Isabella kept the top floor of the building as a private home for herself and she lived there until she died in 1924. Today the museum contains more than 2,500 works of art and is still open to the public.
Sometimes, things are discovered by accident. Isaac Newton, who first used maths to describe gravity, was sitting in his garden when he saw an apple fall. This made him think about why, and he realised he could explain it using maths. Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin, which was the first antibiotic. He was working in his laboratory when he saw that something had started growing on one of his lab dishes. He analyzed it and realised it would be very useful in fighting disease. Sometimes luck can be a big help.
Mr Thomas was a history teacher but for some strange reason he taught us chemistry. His lessons were always fascinating mainly because his experiments always went wrong. Once he was measuring the length of some pieces of sodium. I can’t remember exactly why he needed that measurement, but I think he wanted all the pieces to react in the same way. As he picked up a ruler, his arm knocked over a jug of water and sodium caught fire. He almost burnt the lab down and they had to call the fire brigade. After that, Mr Thomas decided to teach history only.
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Tekst 1

Twitter is an American online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". People could originally use maximum 140 characters in one tweet. But lots of users criticised Twitter that this limit was too small. So to please the customers in November 2017 the company decided to double the number of letters. Registered users can post, like, and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. It is possible to enter Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service (SMS) or its mobile-device application software ("app").

This social networking service is owned by the company Twitter Inc., which is based in San Francisco, California. In March 2006 four young American computer programmers created Twitter and put it on the Internet in July that year. The service quickly became popular around the world. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has got the name of "the SMS of the Internet". At first there were mostly breaking news, entertainment, sport and advertisements. But in the next years the number of political tweets started growing. Today Twitter is an important place to start political debates and help politicians in their career. The best example is President of the USA Donald Trump who uses Twitter a lot every day.
13. Today tweets can be much longer than at the beginning
14. Unregistered Twitter users can post their tweets through SMS
15. Twitter’s popularity was growing slowly
16. Now there are more political posts on Twitter than in the past
Tekst 2

Year 2019 marked the 500th anniversary of the death of Leonardo da Vinci, one of the most extraordinary people of all time. Most of us remember him for the Mona Lisa, the best known painting in the world, or the second most popular – the big mural the Last Supper. But those were only two of his many works. The celebrated Italian artist did not think of himself as a painter because he was also a sculptor, an architect, a scientist, an inventor, an engineer, a philosopher, and a writer. Leonardo desperately wanted to know how different things work, including the human body. That’s why he got interested in human anatomy; he made many sketches of different parts of the body. Da Vinci the scientist observed and analyzed how birds move in the air. As an engineer he used that knowledge to invent a flying machine and a parachute. Leonardo was also fascinated with water. He studied the waves and how water flows. As a result da Vinci created technological innovations useful for civilians such as: irrigation systems for farms, water systems for towns or the first water meter. He was also keen on military technology and designed the first tank, a powerful canon, the equipment for divers and a submarine. All those designs were ahead of his time. No wonder that before his death in 1519, Leonardo da Vinci had a legendary reputation of the true Renaissance man.
17. Da Vinci’s most famous painting is the Last Supper
18. Leonardo thought of himself as a painter in the first place
19. He studied anatomy to discover how human body works
20. Da Vinci was interested in both civilian and military technology