Read the text and circle T for True or F for False
Mt. Kilimanjaro
Mt. Kilimanjaro, whose highest point Uhuru Peak is 5,895m above sea level, is the biggest mountain in Africa. It is situated in Tanzania but the north side slopes down towards the Kenyan border. There is snow and ice at the top of Kilimanjaro all year round, no matter the season. However, the ice sheets have been getting smaller recently, probably due to global warming.

Mt. Kilimanjaro is the remnants of a giant volcano with several outlets that began forming about a million years ago. It is composed of three major volcanic peaks: Shira, Mawenzi and Kibo. The first two are extinct but the third peak Kibo is dormant and might erupt again any time. The last major eruption took place 360,000 years ago. Each year, however, there are occasional small rumbles of activity, which, luckily, do not cause any damage.

Mt. Kilimanjaro offers six official climbing routes: Marangu, Rongai, Lemosho, Shira, Umbwe and Machame. Of them all, Machame is the most beautiful one but it is also the steepest. Climbing along this route takes seven days and requires the most effort. Yet, its breathtaking scenery compensates for it. The Marangu route is shorter and easier. It takes five days and there is even accommodation in the wooden huts along it. Whatever route Kilimanjaro climbers take, they must always have a registered guide with them. They can also climb with the support of local porters if they do not want to carry their baggage themselves.

People who decide to climb Kilimanjaro should be sure that they are properly equipped and physically capable. Acclimatization is essential. Even very experienced climbers may suffer discomfort including breathing problems, hypothermia or headaches. Although Kilimanjaro is not as challenging as the peaks of the Himalayas, the altitude, low temperature, and high winds can make this a difficult climb. Sometimes climbers must be transported down the mountain on a stretcher because of the symptoms of altitude sickness.

All climbers register when they enter the Kilimanjaro national park and they have to pay fees for each day on the mountain. Climbing clubs criticize the Tanzanian authorities for charging fees for each day. They say that this makes climbers risk their lives and climb too quickly to save money. They also stress that any high climb needs time for preparation and acclimatization.

The Tanzanian Medical Services are worried about the number of tourists who think Kilimanjaro is an easy mountain. Recently a survey has been carried out. Its results show that tourists are sometimes encouraged to join groups climbing Kilimanjaro and they are not told about hard physical demands of the climb. Some irresponsible companies simply do not talk about potential difficulties because they want more clients. Kilimanjaro is, however, a high mountain and the last stage of the climb is hard. Tourists must have this knowledge before they set off to reach the top.
1. There is no snow at the top of Mt. Kilimanjaro in summer.
2. Mt. Kilimanjaro still shows signs of volcanic activity.
3. There are beautiful views along the Machame route.
4. The Marangu route can be taken without a guide.
5. Mt. Kilimanjaro is as difficult to climb as the Himalayan mountains.
6. Charging fees for each day causes climbers to climb Kilimanjaro very fast.
7. The survey shows that tourists are poorly informed about Kilimanjaro.
Read the texts and choose the best answer A, B or C
Lady Death
After Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, over 2,000 women were trained as sharpshooters. The most notorious was Lyudmila Pavlichenko, who got the nickname “Lady Death”.

Lyudmila Pavlichenko was born in Balaya Tserkov, a town close to Kiev. At school Pavlichenko was a tomboy; naughty in the classroom and very competitive. She would not let boys outdo her in anything. When a boy from her class boasted of his achievements at a shooting range, she wanted to show that a girl could do as well. So, she joined Osoaviakhim, a paramilitary youth group that taught weapons skills and shooting. After taking a job in an arms plant, she continued to practise her marksmanship. Then she enrolled at Kiev University to study history. There, she competed on the track team as a sprinter and took courses at a sniper’s school.

She was in Odessa when the war broke out and Romanians and Germans invaded. Hundreds of Soviet women sprang to join the war effort, enlisting as nurses, clerks, cooks. Pavlichenko, however, volunteered to become a sniper. Officials tried to enlist her as a nurse but she would not give in. To prove that she was as skilled with a rifle as she claimed, a Red Army unit held an ‘audition’ at a hill they were defending. They handed her a rifle and pointed at two Romanians who were working with the Germans. “When I picked off the two, I was accepted,” Pavlichenko said. It was her first, though still unofficial kill.

She was immediately enlisted in the Red Army’s 25th Chapayev Rifle Division as a private. Pavlichenko, certain of her skills, wanted to proceed immediately to the front. Yet, in the morning, on her first day on the battlefield, close to the enemy she was paralyzed by fear. She was unable to raise her weapon. A young Russian soldier set up his position beside her. But before they had a chance to settle in, a shot rang out and a German bullet took out her comrade. Pavlichenko was shocked into action. “After this nice boy was killed just next to me, nothing could stop me,” she recalled. She got the first of her 309 official kills on the same day, in the evening, when she picked off two German scouts trying to reconnoiter the area.

Pavlichenko fought in Odessa where she got the majority of her kills, which included 100 officers. Then German advances forced her unit to withdraw, landing them in Sevastopol. As her kill count rose, she was given more and more dangerous assignments, including the riskiest of all - countersniping, where she engaged in one-on-one duels with enemy snipers. Pavlichenko never lost a single duel, killing 36 enemy snipers in hunts that could last all day and night. In Sevastopol, German forces badly outnumbered the Russians, and Pavlichenko spent eight months in heavy fighting. In May 1942, she was cited by the War Council for killing 257 of the enemy. When she received the citation, Pavlichenko, now a sergeant, promised, “I’ll get more”.

The Germans tried to bribe her, blaring messages over their radio loudspeakers. “Lyudmila Pavlichenko, come over to us. We will make you a German officer.” When the bribes did not work, the Germans threatened to tear her into 309 pieces - a phrase that delighted the young sniper. “They even knew my score!” She was wounded on four separate occasions, suffered from shell shock, but remained in action. Yet, soon after she was promoted to lieutenant, the Soviets pulled her from combat. They needed Pavlichenko to train new snipers. But Lyudmila did not do it for a long time.

In late 1942 just two months after leaving the battlefield, Lyudmila was sent to the US. She met President Franklin Roosevelt and she became the first Soviet citizen to visit the White House. Her task there was to try to promote the idea of a “second front” in Europe. Getting American support and involvement would help Soviet troops. Later Eleanor Roosevelt asked the Ukrainian officer to accompany her on a tour of the country and tell Americans of her experiences as a woman in combat. She also visited American sharpshooters to lecture them about duels.

Pavlichenko was the most successful and feared female sniper in history, with 309 confirmed kills to her credit.
8. Lyudmila Pavlichenko started shooting when she ...
9. After the war broke out Lyudmila Pavlichenko ...
10. Initially, on the battlefield Lyudmila Pavlichenko felt ...
11. She had her first official kill ...
12. The kill count in Lyudmila Pavlichenko’s duels was ...
13. Lyudmila Pavlichenko was removed from the battlefield because ...
14. Lyudmila was sent to the USA to ...
In this task six phrases have been removed from the text and placed at the bottom. An extra phrase has been included. You must decide which phrase goes into which gap and write the letter in the box below the sentences.
Joint Sea 2017
In July 2017, Chinese and Russian warships practised together in the Baltic Sea in their first Joint Sea Naval Exercise in northern Europe. The exercise was in the focus of attention because it caused political and military controversy, especially among the countries in the region, NATO, and Russia. All sides tried to avoid increasing the tensions. The NATO alliance, … (1) … , noted that the naval drills were being monitored “as a matter of routine.” Chinese and Russian commanders insisted that the exercises were not aimed at any third country.

China and Russia, … (2) … for over a decade, started organizing joint naval drills in 2012. The countries see their developing military partnership as a way to show that they do not stand alone against the West. According to NATO’s spokesman, the naval drills in the Baltic Sea are another example of … (3) … and of its growing global role. China’s rapidly developing navy is still focused mainly on the seas around the country, particularly the South China Sea. However, it is clear … (4) … such as the Mediterranean or the Baltic Sea.

The naval exercises included three Chinese ships and three Russian vessels and were led by a joint command center in Baltiysk. It is a port in the Russian enclave of Kaliningrad which serves as the home base for Russia’s Baltic Fleet. China’s most advanced guided-missile destroyer, the Type 052D Changsha, together with missile frigate Yuncheng and the supply ship Luoma Lake took part in the drill. The first two are not only … (5) … but also the most modern ones in the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Navy’s arsenal.

While China sent some of its most high-end warships to the joint exercise, the contingent from Russia’s Baltic fleet was smaller than expected. It included just two combat ships – new corvettes of the Steregushchy class. They were accompanied by a support tug, naval Ka-27 helicopters and landbased Su-24 fighter-bombers as air support. According to a Russian military official, his country decided on such a small showing … (6) … in the Baltic, just a symbolic one.
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