Read the text and circle T for True or F for False
One-legged Spy
Over the course of American history, women have played an important role in espionage. One of the best, yet little known, spies was Virginia Hall, born in Baltimore in 1906. From an early age Virginia displayed a strong sense of adventure. She attended the best schools and set her sights on a career as a diplomat with the Foreign Service. However, in 1932, while hunting, Virginia accidentally shot herself in the leg. The injury was so extensive that the leg had to be amputated. As a result, her application to work for the Foreign Service was turned down. Who would have known that this handicapped woman would work for British intelligence and become “the most dangerous of all Allied spies”.

Despite her disability, Virginia was determined to make the most of her life. She continued her studies and travelled round Europe before settling down in France. When World War II broke out, rather than go back to the US, she decided to stay on the continent and fight the enemy. She sneaked to Britain to join the Special Operations Executive (SOE). The organization trained her in espionage and sabotage techniques.

Having completed the training, Virginia returned to German-occupied France under the guise of a news reporter. She helped put in place safe drop zones for bringing in new agents, supplies and weapons. The local resistance, being largely untrained, depended on Hall to coordinate tandem attacks. She proved to be extremely good at the work and operated in enemy territory for fifteen months. However, when the German invasion expanded, Virginia, along with other resistance organizers, was given orders to clear out of France and go back to Britain. The escape was dangerous as part of it involved a 30-mile trek through the Pyrenees. Hall was worried that she might not make it. However, she was so determined that she covered the distance without any problems. In fact, the guide, who had agreed to smuggle the resistance fighters, didn’t even notice Virginia’s disability.

By the time she returned to London, the US had entered the war. The Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the US spy organization, immediately saw Hall’s potential and was keen to recruit her. Hall happily joined the American espionage organization and went back to France for more undercover work. In the guise of an elderly peasant woman, Virginia worked with the French to destroy bridges, sabotage German trains and engage in guerrilla warfare.

Virginia’s achievements didn’t go unnoticed. President Truman decided to award her with the Distinguished Service Cross. She was invited to a big medal-awarding ceremony. However, Virginia declined the offer as she didn’t want her identity revealed. Instead, she was given the medal at a private ceremony. She was the only American woman to be awarded this honor during World War II.

After marrying a fellow OSS agent in 1950, Virginia continued working as a spy until she retired. She lived on a farm in Baltimore till her death in 1982. Hall’s niece said of her aunt: “She never wanted any recognition. I think my aunt believed she was just doing her job. Even when she retired, she would talk about books and animals, but not about the incredible things she had done.”
1. As a schoolgirl, Virginia dreamt of working for the diplomatic service.
2. When the war started, Virginia returned to America.
3. Virginia learnt how to coordinate tandem attacks from the French Resistance.
4. The guide didn’t know that Virginia was disabled.
5. Virginia returned to France as an American spy.
6. Virginia was given the award during a public ceremony.
7. After retirement, Virginia began talking about her war-time adventures.
Read the texts and choose the best answer A, B or C
Do you know who was behind the largest mass suicide in recorded history? It was a charismatic man called Jim Jones. He was born in Crete, Indiana. Since his father had been injured in World War I and was unable to work, Jim's mother supported the family. Neighbours considered the family a little odd. Childhood playmates remember Jim holding mock church services in his home, many of which were funeral services for dead animals. Some questioned where he kept "finding" so many dead animals and believed he had killed some himself.

After leaving school, Jim started working in a hospital where he met Marceline Baldwin. The two were married in June 1949. They had one child and adopted several children of various ethnicities. Jones was proud of his "rainbow family" and urged others to adopt interracially. As a young adult, he wanted to make the world a better place. To realize that idea, at first Jones trained to be a pastor at a local church. However, he soon quarrelled with the church's leadership. Jones, who was against racial segregation, wanted to integrate the church, which was not a popular idea at that time.

Jones soon began preaching to African Americans, whom he most wanted to help. He often used "healing" rituals to attract new followers. During these events he claimed he was able to heal people's illnesses like eye problems. Within two years, Jones had enough followers to start his own church. By selling imported monkeys as pets, Jones had saved enough money to open a church in Indianapolis in 1956, which he called the Peoples Temple.

The Peoples Temple was open to anyone regardless of their race. At a time when most churches were segregated, the Peoples Temple offered a very different view of what society could become. Jones’ vision was socialist in nature. He believed that American capitalism caused an unhealthy imbalance in the world, where the rich had too much money. Through the Peoples Temple, Jones promoted activism. Although it was a small church, the Peoples Temple established soup kitchens and homes for the elderly and mentally ill.

When the Peoples Temple became successful, Jones’ healing rituals attracted the authorities’ attention. As a result, an investigation into his practices began. This convinced him it was time to move. In 1966, he moved the Peoples Temple to California. Jones picked that place because he had read an article that said it was one of the top places which were least likely to be hit during a nuclear attack. About 65 families followed Jones from Indiana to California. On arrival, their new home seemed much more tolerant than Indiana.

People trusted Jim Jones, yet many did not know how unbalanced he really was. After the move to California, the church transformed into a cult. Members had to be loyal to Jones and give him all of their money. He also took large quantities of drugs, running up huge debts. In time, the drugs caused his health to deteriorate, and it made him paranoid. He did not care about the local police, but he started believing that the CIA and FBI were after him. His paranoia got worse when Jones learned that an article was about to be published about him. It included interviews with ex-members of his church. The night before the article was printed, Jones and several hundred members flew to Guyana, where he established a community called Jonestown.

The utopian community in Guyana, however, turned out to be a nightmare. The living conditions were horrible and the work hours were long. When U.S. Congressman Leo Ryan heard reports of bad things happening in Jonestown, he decided to go there. He took along his adviser and an NBC film crew. At first, everything looked fine and all the people they talked to seemed happy. However, during a formal dinner, someone secretly passed a note to Ryan with the names of a few people who wanted to leave the community. It then became clear that some were being held there against their will.

The following day, November 18th 1978, Ryan and those who wished to return to the U.S. went to the airport. While they were waiting for a plane, a group of Jones’ men turned up and opened fire, killing 6 people including Ryan. Meanwhile, back in Jonestown, the guru prepared a poisoned punch containing cyanide and valium for his followers to drink. As a result, 912 people lost their life. Jones died of a gunshot wound to the head. Even today there are doubts as to whether or not he committed suicide.
8. We learn from the second paragraph that Jones …
9. Jones got money for his church by …
10. Jones believed that …
11. Jones chose California because …
12. Jones escaped to Guyana because …
13. Ryan knew for sure that things were not right in Jonestown when …
14. It is still uncertain …
In this task six phrases have been removed from the text and placed at the bottom. An extra phrase has been included. You must decide which phrase goes into which gap and write the letter in the box below the sentences.
Elite Counter-Terrorist Officers
Recently in Britain there have been several terror-related incidents requiring the use of firearms. However, as a matter of routine, police officers in Britain do not carry guns. For firearms related incidents each police force in Britain has a specialist unit with officers trained to be Authorised Firearms Officers (AFOs). AFOs are tasked …(1)… outside the capability of regular, unarmed officers. AFOs are, however, relatively lightly armed and meant primarily to deal with regular criminal activity. In a terror incident, the police rely on the military for support. Yet, before any military units can be called into action on UK soil, …(2)… . This usually comes from a government committee called COBRA. This process inevitably takes time and risks lives.

Therefore, in 2016, the Metropolitan Police announced a new 'military style' force to deal with terrorists in Britain. Known as Counter Terrorism Specialist Firearms Officers (CTSFO), these heavily-armed officers are ready to be …(3)… . Similar units are being created in other major British cities. Using motorbikes, the officers are able to cut through the heavy London traffic at speeds of up to 120 mph. They also …(4)… including battering rams and heavy duty cutting equipment.

Although the exact size of the unit is a closely guarded secret, it is known the number of officers is growing all the time. It's been revealed that the UK police want to …(5)… . However, the Police Federation warns that recruitment could take at least two years. Some forces are getting volunteers coming forward, but they are not always being selected because they do not meet the criteria. It is vitally important that the highest standards are maintained. Also, the counter-terrorism teams should be deployed all over the country. If there is an attack, …(6)… . We've got to have the resources in many places at the same time.
15. 1
16. 2
17. 3
18. 4
19. 5
20. 6