Read the text and circle T for True or F for False
Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?
Have you ever heard the phrase “an officer and a gentleman”? Unfortunately, a famous case on British TV proves that it’s not always the case. Charles Ingram was a major in the British Army when he applied to take part in the television game show Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?. Ingram managed to get on the show in September 2001. However, it was not the first time that an Ingram family member appeared on the show. His wife and her brother had previously been contestants, each winning £32,000.

Ingram practised for about twenty minutes per day on a homemade "Fastest Finger First” machine. As a result, he easily qualified for the game show. By the time recording ended on the first day, Ingram had reached £4,000 and used two of his three "lifelines". The TV production team doubted he would proceed much further when recording resumed, but he went on to win the top prize of £1 million. Ingram often ‘jumped’ between answers, appearing to decide on one answer before suddenly moving to another.

The show's production company suspended the £1 million payout after they suspected Ingram had cheated. Production staff accused Ingram and his wife of having an accomplice amongst the waiting contestants, Mr. Whittock, who would cough when Ingram read out a correct answer.

Following a trial at Southwark Crown Court lasting four weeks, on 7 April 2003 the Ingrams and Whittock were convicted by a majority verdict and given prison sentences suspended for two years. In August 2003, the Army Board ordered Ingram to resign his commission as a major after 17 years of service, but stated that this would not affect his military pension.

In 2006, journalist Jon Ronson wrote that he believed the Ingrams might be innocent. Ronson, who attended every day of the trial, had observed that when the word "cough" was mentioned in the courtroom, people in the public gallery started coughing too. James Plaskett, who had appeared on Millionaire several times before, argued this was an example of coughs caused by an uncontrollable reaction; Whittock simply coughed involuntarily when he heard the correct answer.

Whittock claims to suffer a persistent cough which is caused by hay fever and a dust allergy. He says it was only accidental that his throat problem coincided with the right answers. During the trial, however, evidence was presented that once Whittock himself earned the right to sit in the hot seat on Millionaire, his throat problems disappeared. Therefore the judge did not accept Whittock’s explanation.
1. Ingram’s wife had taken part in the game show before her husband
2. The TV crew thought Ingram would be quickly eliminated
3. Ingram won the top prize on the first day of recording
4. The show’s staff suspected Ingram was helped by his wife’s coughs
5. As a result of the trial, Ingram lost the right to a military pension
6. Journalist Jon Ronson believed Whittock’s reaction was unintentional
7. Whittock’s explanation was questioned by the judge
Read the texts and choose the best answer A, B or C
One of the Greatest Drivers of All Time
Sadly, Stirling Moss died on 12th April 2020, but he will be remembered as one of the all-time greatest drivers. He won 212 of his 529 races, including 16 Formula 1 Grand Prix victories, but never won the Championship title. In the 1950s, boys wanted to be Stirling Moss, and so did men. Young boys saw him as the exciting race car driver whom many considered the best in the world and they dreamt of winning races in fast cars. Men saw him differently, however. What excited them most was the fact that Moss made more than $1 million a year, more than any other driver, and was often surrounded by the jet-set beauties who followed the international racing circuit. It was this way of living that made men want to be him.

Moss was a modern-day St. George, upholding the honour of England by often driving English cars, even though German and Italian ones were superior. Moss claimed courage and stupidity were pretty much the same thing. He said you needed to be a bit mad to succeed. In fact, he may have proved it in a succession of spectacular accidents: seven times his wheels came off, eight times his brakes failed. He was a racer, he insisted, not a driver. “To race a car through a turn at maximum possible speed when there is grass on both sides is difficult,” he said in an interview “but to race a car at maximum speed through a turn when there is a brick wall on one side and a steep fall on the other - ah, that’s an achievement!”

He raced for 14 years, in events that included Grand Prix, sports cars and long-distance rallying, in 107 different types of car. He set the world land speed record on the salt flats of Utah in 1957. Yet, the Formula One championship victory escaped him. Although he won more than 40 percent of the races he entered, including 16 Grand Prix, he could not get enough points to win an F1 season. For four years in a row, 1955-58, he finished second in the world Grand Prix championship. And in each of the next three years, he came third.

He was called the best driver never to win the ultimate crown. He came closest to winning the Formula One Championship in 1958, but helped another driver, Mike Hawthorn, who was accused of breaking a rule in the Portugal Grand Prix. Moss told race authorities that Hawthorn had not broken any rules. Hawthorn, as a result, was not disqualified. Even though Moss won the race, when the season ended, Hawthorn had 42 points. Moss – though he had four Grand Prix wins to Hawthorn’s one – finished second with 41 points. “If Moss had put reason before passion,” said Enzo Ferrari, “he would have been world champion many times.”

Other drivers invariably named Moss No. 1, but it was his character that captivated the public. He hated wearing the required helmet, saying he preferred a cloth cap. In 1955, he won the Italian Mille Miglia, a 992-mile road race, in 10 hours, beating the other cars by 31 minutes. In 1958, he gambled to win the Argentinian Grand Prix by not changing his tires the entire 80 laps, despite their having a design life of 40 laps. In 1961, driving a four-cylinder Lotus, he fought off three six-cylinder Ferraris to win the Monaco Grand Prix.

Moss, the ultimate pro, once observed that there are no professionals at dying – although he had practised. As if brakes failing were not bad enough, perhaps the worst crash came in 1958. He was sure he was “a goner” after his steering column snapped at over 160 m.p.h. in a race in Monza, Italy. It was even worse than a wheel falling off, as at least with three wheels he could still steer the car. As he staggered away from the wreckage, he thought, “Well, if this is hell, it’s not very hot, or if it’s heaven, why is it so dusty?”

He is still remembered today, many years after retiring, as Moss was more than his talent. He was a beautiful character, one that still symbolises high style a half-century after his retirement, reminding us of an era of blazers and cravats, of dance bands and cigarette holders. One legend had him driving hundreds of miles in a vain effort to introduce himself to Miss Italy the night before a big race. His 16 books cemented his legend. So for a couple of generations, British traffic police jokingly asked speeding motorists, “Who do you think you are, Stirling Moss?”. Moss, who was knighted by the Queen in 2000, was once asked that question, and answered, “Sir Stirling, please.”
8. Men mostly wanted to be like Stirling Moss as they ...
9. Moss said a successful racing driver ...
10. In the 1950s Stirling Moss …
11. In 1958 Stirling Moss lost the F1 championship because he …
12. By not stopping during the race, Moss was able to win the …
13. Perhaps the worst of Moss’s crashes was caused by …
14. After he finished his racing career, Stirling Moss …
In this task six phrases have been removed from the text and placed at the bottom. An extra phrase has been included. You must decide which phrase goes into which gap and write the letter in the box below the sentences.
Rethinking Force-Protection in Iraq
New air defense systems are now protecting American and allied forces at military bases in Iraq, where troops have been attacked by Iranian-backed insurgents in recent months. Patriot missile launchers and two other short-range systems are now in place at al-Asad Air Base, ... (1) ... . A short-range rocket defense system was installed at Camp Taji.

The military has been gradually moving the defensive systems into Iraq over the last few months to provide more protection for troops that have experienced a series of rocket and missile attacks. The attacks raised questions about the lack of air defense systems at the bases. But it has taken time to negotiate with Iraqi leaders, and also to specify defense systems … (2) … . Before the missile attacks, U.S. military leaders did not believe the systems were needed there, more than anywhere else in the world where such strikes are more frequent.

The systems are now operational, as top U.S. officials warn ... (3) ... . Gen. Mark Milley, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff said, that because of that threat, hundreds of soldiers from the 1st Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division, remain in Iraq, “in part because the situation with the Shia militia groups and Iran ... (4) ... .” He added that “they will continue their mission until the threat has subsided”. Several rockets hit near the site of an American oilfield service company in southern Iraq this week. It was the first such attack in recent months to target U.S. energy interests.

President Donald Trump said his administration ... (5) ... . He provided no details, but he warned Iran in a tweet that if U.S. troops are attacked by Iran or its proxies, "Iran will pay a very heavy price, indeed!” But other officials have said that the risk of attack is much lower now, as ... (6) ... .

Still, military leaders have argued that U.S. and coalition troops needed the extra protection because Iran’s allies are still a threat and it's unclear how much control Tehran may have over them, particularly now as the virus hits Iran hard.
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